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Veterinarians and traditional animal health care August 19th, 2018 by

It is unfortunate that not more is done to safeguard and value traditional knowledge.

In Pune, Maharastra, the Indian NGO Anthra has devoted a great part of its energy in documenting traditional animal health knowledge and practices across India. Dr. Nitya Ghotge along with a team of women veterinarians founded Anthra in 1992 to address the problems faced by communities who reared animals, particularly peasants, pastoralists, adivasis (indigenous peoples of South Asia), dalits (formerly known as untouchables – people outside the caste system), women and others who remained hidden from the gaze of mainstream development.

In their encyclopaedia Plants Used in Animal Care, Anthra has compiled an impressive list of plants used for veterinary purposes and fodder.

To ensure that local communities across the global south benefit from this indigenous knowledge, Anthra started collaborating with one of Access Agriculture’s trained video partners (Atul Pagar) to gradually develop a series of farmer-to-farmer training videos on herbal medicines (see: the Access Agriculture video category on animal health).

While Indian cities are booming and the agro-industry continues its efforts to conquer lucrative markets, many farmers and farmer organisations across the country treasure India’s rich cultural and agricultural heritage. Unfortunately, this is not the case everywhere. In many countries, local knowledge is quickly eroding as the older generation of farmers and pastoralists disappear.

 

A few years ago, I was thrilled to work with traditional Fulani herders in Nigeria, only to discover that none of them still made use of herbal medicines. Even to treat something as simple as ticks, the young herders confidently turned to veterinary drugs. Although the elder people could still readily name the various plants they used to treat various common animal diseases, the accessibility and ease of application of modern drugs meant that none of the herders still used herbal medicines. The risks of such drastic changes quickly became apparent. As we were making a series of training videos on quality milk, which should have no antibiotics or drug residues, we visited a hospital to interview a local doctor.

“If people are well they are not supposed to take antibiotics. If such a person is sick in the future and the sickness requires the use of antibiotics, it would be difficult to cure because such drugs will not work. It can even make the illness more severe,” doctor Periola Amidu Akintayo from the local hospital confided in front of the camera.

Later on, we visited a traditional Fulani cattle market. For years, these markets have been bustling places where the semi-nomadic herders meet buyers from towns. People exchange news on latest events and the weather, but above all assess the quality of the animals and negotiate prices. Animals that look unhealthy or have signs of parasites obviously fetch a lower price. Given that the cattle market is where the Fulani herders meet their fellow herders and clients, I quickly realized why the entire market was surrounded by small agro vet shops. Competition was fierce, and demand for animal drugs was high.

Modern drugs come with an enclosed instruction sheet, but as with pesticides nobody in developing countries reads this advice. To keep costs down, many herders and farmers administer drugs to their own animals, to avoid spending money on a veterinary doctor. Perhaps even more worrying: few people are aware of the risks that modern drugs pose to human health, whether it be from developing resistance to antibiotics or drug residues in food. In organisations like Anthra, socially engaged veterinary doctors merge local knowledge with scientific information, thus playing an undervalued role that deserve more attention. The training videos made with these veterinarians and their farmer allies will hopefully show more people that it is important to bring the best of both worlds together.

Related training videos

Herbal medicine against fever in livestock

Herbal treatment for diarrhoea

Managing cattle ticks

Keeping milk free from antibiotics

Related blogs

Trust that works

Big chicken, little chicken

Nourishing a fertile imagination

Asking the right questions August 12th, 2018 by

I once saw a quantitative survey turn to dust, literally. I was a young graduate student in Tucson, Arizona when an older anthropologist asked me if I would like to write up the results of a survey she had conducted on the city’s largely Hispanic south side. She swung open the doors to her storage shed, revealing a large, cardboard box. When the anthropologist tried to lift some of the forms out of the box, they crumbled in her fingers. Tucson’s warm, dry climate is perfect for termites, which had carved their galleries throughout the sheets of paper.

For that anthropologist, going door-to-door with her questionnaire had been the fun part of the survey. Analyzing the results and writing up the conclusions were harder. In the end the termites benefited the most from the survey.

A few years later, I found myself in northern Portugal, on a questionnaire study of smallholder farmers. I was part of a team of anthropologists and economists who designed the survey form, a straightforward task – or so we thought at the time. But at 20 pages, the form took about two hours to fill out. To encourage farmers to take part, we said that their answers would make policy-makers more responsive to agriculture, which may not have believable.

After we surveyed six parishes in the Entre-Douro-e-Minho province I went to live in one of them, Pedralva. There I learned how much the survey had annoyed the farmers. One couple had missed their irrigation turn while answering questions. One prosperous farmer complained how long the survey took and said that: “They even counted the eyes of the chickens!” That was an exaggeration (we had asked how many rabbits and chickens people had) but a sign of how frustrating farmers found the lengthy, prying survey.

Even worse, the farmers mistrusted the survey’s intentions. The farmers assumed that the tax bureau would be informed of the results, so they claimed to have harvested a fraction of their real yields, inadvertently making their well-adapted farming systems appear unproductive.

Eventually I learned to write shorter, more focused surveys, and to enter the data every night on a spreadsheet. And prizes can help to take the sting out of lost time. Once in the Chapare, Bolivia my colleagues and I rewarded each farmer we interviewed with three kilos of mineral fertilizer, left over from an earlier project. They liked the gift so much that one of them took the survey twice.

Sometimes four or five questions are enough. In Bolivia I once worked with a project that gathered hundreds of farmers for three “technology fairs” to watch other farmers demonstrate new ideas such as metal plows or fertilized quinoa. At the end we simply asked the fair goers what ideas they liked and which ones they wanted to try. The questionnaire was so short that a dozen agronomists could administer it in a few minutes. We could get feedback from some 200 farmers before breaking for lunch.

Of course times have changed. Surveys in the city or in the villages can now be entered electronically on a tablet. The questionnaires being filled out today are immune to termites, and you can send them out on-line.

But one thing remains the same. People still don’t like to answer long questionnaires. When you fill out a questionnaire in person, the respondents may be too polite to break off the interview, but with an on-line version, fatigue sets in quickly. On-line surveys yield the best results when they are short. Some respondents are willing to share more during follow-up phone calls or emails (as we have seen in previous blog stories (Families, land and videos in Northern Uganda. Watching videos to become a dairy expert, and Drip irrigation saves water in South Sudan).

Whether on-line or in-person, a few simple questions may be as revealing as a long and tedious questionnaire that tries too hard to gather information. If do you need answers to lots of questions, consider rewarding people for the time they give you.

Further reading

The results of the first Portuguese survey eventually contributed to:

Pearson, S.R., F. Avillez, J.W. Bentley, T. J. Finan, R. Fox, T. Josling, M. Langworthy, E. Monke, & S. Tangermann 1987 Portuguese Agriculture in Transition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

My community study in Entre-Douro-e-Minho:

Bentley, Jeffery W. 1992 Today There Is No Misery: The Ethnography of Farming in Northwest Portugal. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

The short survey in the Chapare (where people received a gift of fertilizer for answering our questions) contributed to:

Bentley, Jeffery W. 2003 Desarrollo Participativo de TecnologĂ­a en el TrĂłpico de Cochabamba. Cochabamba: Development Alternatives, Inc.

The results from the questionnaire at the technology fairs:

Bentley, Jeffery W., Graham Thiele, Rolando Oros & Claudio Velasco 2011 “Cinderella’s Slipper: Sondeo Surveys and Technology Fairs for Gauging Demand,” pp. 276-301. In André Devaux, Miguel Ordinola & Douglas Horton (eds.) Innovation for Development: The Papa Andina Experience. 418 pp. Lima: International Potato Center. Originally published in 2004 as AgREN Network Paper No. 138.

Bentley, Jeffery W., Claudio Velasco, Félix Rodríguez, Rolando Oros, Rubén Botello, Morag Webb, André Devaux & Graham Thiele 2011 “Unspoken Demands for Farm Technology”. pp. 302-324. In André Devaux, Miguel Ordinola & Douglas Horton (eds.) Innovation for Development: The Papa Andina Experience. 418 pp. Lima: International Potato Center. Originally published in 2007 in International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5(1): 70-84.

Predicting the weather August 5th, 2018 by

Vea la versión en español a continuación.

Most city dwellers are only interested in short term weather forecasting. Will it rain over the weekend when we plan to invite friends to a barbecue? Do I need to carry an umbrella or wear a coat tomorrow? Fortunately for urbanites, TV, radio and web-based services provide short term forecasts.

Farmers are interested in short term weather forecasting too, but also in long term predictions. Knowing what week the rains will start is crucial for deciding when to plant rain-fed crops. Knowing how much it will rain helps farmers choose whether to plant on high or low ground.

I learned this recently from Edwin Yucra, a researcher at UMSA, the public university of San Andrés, in La Paz. Edwin has spent years working with Andean farmers on the Bolivian Altiplano, helping them to make use of weather forecasts based on the latest scientific data. For example, not long ago, Edwin noticed that there was an unexpected rain forecast for two or three days hence. Farmers usually like rain, but not on this occasion. The farmers he works with were about to freeze-dry potatoes into chuño, when dry nights are essential. To warn the farmers, Edwin didn’t have to meet with them. He let them know on social media. The farmers were able to delay making chuño and save their potatoes from rotting.

Scientific weather forecasting is not particularly accurate over a whole year. This leaves farmers more or less to their own devices. One group of master Andean farmers, called the “yapuchiris” (which means “farmer” in Aymara) is paying attention to long term weather forecasting. During the dry season, the yapuchiris notice the behavior of animals, plants or stars. For example, birds nesting on high ground are interpreted as a sign of a wet year, while low-lying nests suggest a coming drought.

The yapuchiris write down their meteorological predictions, and then painstakingly record the weather every day for the next year, to see if their forecasts are accurate. The yapuchiris use a paper form which they and their partners at PROSUCO (an NGO) have been perfecting since the early 2000s. They use a large chart called a Pachagrama. They coined this term by blending the Aymara word for earth and weather (“pacha”) with the Spanish ending “-grama” (as in telegrama). The “Earth-gram” includes 365 columns for each day of the year and rows for different kinds of weather (sun, wind, rain, hail etc.) The yapuchiris draw a dot in each row every day to add further information. For example a dot placed higher in the sun column means a sunny day and a lower dot is a cloudy day. Later the dots can be connected to draw a graph of the year’s weather.

PROSUCO is now doing a statistical study to show how well a dedicated group of 18 yapuchiris have accurately predicted weather for several years. The university tracks modern meteorology sites for short-term forecasting, while the Pachagrama validates local, long-term weather predictions. These two efforts are different, but farmers value both of them, and will use them to see what the weather will be like this week, and this year.

Read more about the yapuchiris:

Farmers produce electronic content

Inspiration from Bangladesh to Bolivia

Or about chuño:

Feeding the ancient Andean state

Acknowledgement

This work with weather is funded by the McKnight Foundation’s Collaborative Crop Research Program (CCRP).

Photos courtesy of PROSUCO.

PREDICIENDO EL CLIMA

Por Jeff Bentley

5 de agosto del 2018

La mayoría de los citadinos solo estamos interesados en el pronóstico del tiempo a corto plazo. ¿Lloverá durante el fin de semana cuando pensamos invitar nuestros amigos a una parrillada? ¿Debo llevar un paraguas o un abrigo mañana? Afortunadamente para los citadinos, los servicios meteorológicos de la televisión, la radio y web hacen tales pronósticos a corto plazo.

Los agricultores también están interesados en pronósticos meteorológicos a corto plazo, además de predicciones a largo plazo. Saber qué semana comenzarán las lluvias es crucial para decidir cuándo sembrar cultivos de secano. Saber cuánto va a llover ayuda a los agricultores a elegir sembrar en terreno alto o bajo.

Esto lo aprendí recientemente de Edwin Yucra, investigador de UMSA, la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, en La Paz. Durante años, Edwin ha trabajado con agricultores en el Altiplano boliviano, ayudándolos a hacer pronósticos meteorológicos, incluso con métodos científicos. Por ejemplo, no hace mucho tiempo, Edwin notó que había un pronóstico de lluvia inesperada para dos o tres días. A los agricultores generalmente les gusta la lluvia, pero no esta vez. Estaban a punto de congelar las papas en chuño, cuando las noches secas son esenciales. Para advertir a los agricultores, Edwin no tenía que reunirse con ellos. Él les hizo saber en las redes sociales para que pudieran esperar para hacer chuño y evitar que sus papas se pudran.

El pronóstico meteorológico científico no es muy preciso para predicciones de un año entero, lo cual deja a los agricultores más o menos a sus propios recursos. Por otro lado, un grupo de agricultores andinos, los llamados yapuchiris (que significa “agricultor” o “agricultora en aymara), pone atención a la predicción del tiempo a largo plazo. Durante la época seca, los yapuchiris se fijan en el comportamiento de los animales, plantas o las estrellas. Por ejemplo, las aves que anidan en un terreno más elevado que el normal se interpretan como señal de un año lluvioso, mientras que los nidos más bajos sugieren que habrá sequía.

Los yapuchiris escriben sus predicciones meteorolĂłgicas y luego registran minuciosamente el comportamiento del tiempo todos los dĂ­as durante el prĂłximo año, para ver si sus pronĂłsticos eran ciertos. Los yapuchiris usan un formulario en papel que ellos y sus socios en PROSUCO (una ONG) han estado perfeccionando desde principios de la dĂ©cada de 2000. Usan una tabla grande llamada Pachagrama. Ellos acuñaron este tĂ©rmino combinando la palabra aymara para la tierra y tiempo (“pacha”) con la terminaciĂłn “-grama”. Ese Pachagrama incluye 365 columnas para cada dĂ­a del año y filas para los diferentes tipos de clima (sol, viento, lluvia, granizo, etc.). Los yapuchiris dibujan un punto en cada fila todos los dĂ­as para anotar la informaciĂłn. Por ejemplo, un punto colocado más arriba en la columna del sol significa un dĂ­a soleado y un punto más abajo es un dĂ­a nublado. Más tarde, los puntos se pueden conectar para dibujar un gráfico del clima del año.

Prosuco ahora está haciendo un estudio estadístico para ver si un grupo de 18 yapuchiris diestros ha predicho con precisión el clima durante varios años. La universidad rastrea los sitios modernos de meteorología para el pronóstico a corto plazo, mientras que el Pachagrama valida las predicciones meteorológicas a largo plazo en base a observaciones ecológicas. Estos dos esfuerzos son diferentes, pero los agricultores valoran ambos y los usarán para ver cómo será el clima esta semana y este año.

Lea más acerca de los yapuchiris:

Agricultores producen contenido electrĂłnico

InspiraciĂłn de Bangladesh a Bolivia

O sobre el chuño:

Feeding the ancient Andean state

Agradecimiento

Este trabajo con el clima es financiado por el Programa Colaborativo de InvestigaciĂłn sobre Cultivos (CCRP) de la FundaciĂłn McKnight.

Las fotos son cortesĂ­a de PROSUCO.

Learn by living July 29th, 2018 by

Vea la versión en español a continuación

Carrasco National Park is the largest national park in Cochabamba, Bolivia. At over 6,000 square kilometers it is the size of Delaware, or twice the size of Luxembourg. It spans an impressive range of topographies, from the high Andes down to the rain forest. I was in the park recently with my family to see some of the sandstone caves. Our guide was a 15-year-old schoolboy named Samuel. We met him in the office of the accredited guides, next to the park rangers’ station.

Soon after we arrived, the ranger had sent Samuel a WhatsApp message, and he came quickly to lead the tour. Fortunately he was available, since school was on a two-week break. However, we got off to an inauspicious start. Samuel started his introduction talk in a soft, rapid mumble, like a bored student chanting a dull lesson. He seemed not to know or care what he was talking about. But first impressions were misleading, as we soon found out.

Some of my more patient family members were able to draw Samuel out. By the time he had taken us across a mountain stream in a hand-powered cable car, Samuel was explaining that the balsa tree, which gives the light wood for airplanes, is actually quite heavy when it is standing timber. He then told us about palo santo, a tree guarded by ants which clear plants from around the base of the tree and keep the branches free of epiphytes. In an earlier, crueler age, people guilty of theft and even minor crimes could be tied to the tree to be tortured by the ants which inject a white poison from the needles on their abdomen.

Samuel showed a tiny species of native, stingless bee that makes its nest inside a termite nest. The bees make a honey-colored tunnel which serves as a doorway and landing pad. The tunnel is barely visible, peeking out of the large termite nest. You have to be a patient observer, like Samuel, to notice this. I was delighted to learn about the bees that move in with the termites. I have loved these little golden bees for years, but never seen them living in termite nests.

Samuel also took us to the entrance of the cave of the oil birds. Much like bats, the birds live in caverns, fly out at night and eat the fruit of palms and trees. Later, the birds regurgitate the seeds onto the cave floor. Samuel picked up six seeds from the stream flowing from the cave. He recognized all six species by their seed, which he picked out of the muck puked out by the birds.

Samuel may not have been much of a showman, but he knew his stuff. He had grown up in the area, the son of settlers from the Andes, so he had learned much about the forest by his own observations. Samuel wants to study tourism, and keep working in the park. He taught me once again the importance of being patient and willing to learn from others. Appearances can be deceiving and one wouldn’t normally expect a shy 15 year-old to be an expert naturalist. But you can always learn something if you’re willing to listen.

The palm and tree species identified by Samuel are:

Laurel (Spanish elm) Cordia aliodora. Palta laurel (unidentified). Pachubilla or caminante (walking palm) Socratea exorrhiza. Majo (açaí) Euterpe oleracea. Tembe (peach palm) Bactris gasipaes. Ramoncilla (a palm) Trichilia pallida

Other species mentioned

The oil bird is Steatornis caripensis. The stingless bee is Melipona sp.

Acknowledgement

Thanks to Ana Gonzales for identifying the palm and tree species.

APRENDER VIVIENDO

Por Jeff Bentley

29 de julio del 2018

El Parque Nacional Carrasco es el parque nacional más grande de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Con más de 6.000 kilómetros cuadrados, tiene dos terceras el área de Puerto Rico. Abarca una impresionante gama de topografías, desde los altos Andes hasta el bosque lluvioso. Estuve en el parque recientemente con mi familia para ver algunas de las cuevas de piedra arenisca. Nuestro guía era un estudiante de 15 años llamado Samuel. Lo encontramos en la oficina de los guías acreditados, al lado de la estación de los guardaparques.

Poco después de llegar, el guardabosques le envió a Samuel un mensaje por WhatsApp, y él vino rápidamente para dirigir la gira. Afortunadamente estaba disponible, ya que el colegio estaba en un receso de dos semanas. Sin embargo, tuvimos un comienzo desfavorable. Samuel comenzó su charla de introducción en un murmullo suave y rápido, como un estudiante aburrido cantando una lección aburrida. Parecía no saber o interesarse de lo que estaba hablando. Pero las primeras impresiones fueron engañosas, como pronto descubrimos.

Algunos de mis familiares más pacientes pudieron ganar la confianza de Samuel. En el tiempo que tardó en llevarnos a través de un riachuelo en un teleférico manual, Samuel explicaba que el árbol de balsa, que da la madera liviana para aviones, en realidad es bastante pesada cuando está en pie. Luego nos contó sobre el palo santo, un árbol protegido por hormigas que limpian las plantas de alrededor de la base del árbol y mantienen las ramas libres de epífitas. En una edad anterior y más cruel, las personas culpables de robo e incluso delitos menores podían ser atadas al árbol para ser torturadas por las hormigas que inyectan un veneno blanco de las agujas en su abdomen.

Samuel mostró una pequeña especie de abeja nativa sin aguijón que hace su nido dentro de un nido de termitas. Las abejas forman un túnel de color miel que sirve como entrada y plataforma de aterrizaje. El túnel es apenas visible, asomándose desde el gran nido de termitas. Tienes que ser un observador paciente, como Samuel, para fijarte en esto. Yo estaba encantado de aprender sobre las abejas que viven con las termitas. Hace muchos años que amo a estas pequeñas abejas de oro, pero nunca las he visto viviendo en nidos de termitas.

Samuel también nos llevó a la entrada de la cueva de los guácharos. Son pájaros que, igual que los murciélagos, viven en cavernas, vuelan de noche y comen fruta de palmeras y árboles. Más tarde, las aves regurgitan las semillas en el suelo de la cueva. Samuel recogió seis semillas de la quebrada que fluía de la cueva. Reconoció las seis especies por sus semillas, vomitadas por los pájaros, que recogió del lodo.

Samuel no era muy teatrero, pero sabía lo que hacía. Él había crecido en la zona, hijo de colonos de los Andes, por lo que había aprendido mucho sobre el bosque por sus propias observaciones. Samuel quiere estudiar turismo y seguir trabajando en el parque. Él me enseñó una vez más la importancia de ser paciente y estar dispuesto a aprender de los demás. Las apariencias engañan y uno normalmente no esperaría que un quinceañero tímido fuera un experto naturalista. Pero siempre puedes aprender algo si estás dispuesto a escuchar.

Las palmeras y árboles identificadas por Samuel son:

Laurel Cordia aliodora. Palta laurel (no identificada). Pachubilla o caminante Socratea exorrhiza. Majo Euterpe oleracea. Tembe Bactris gasipaes. Ramoncilla Trichilia pallida.

Otras especies mencionadas 

El guácharo es Steatornis caripensis. La abejita es Melipona sp.

Agradecimiento

Gracias a Ana Gonzales por identificar las especies de palmeras y árboles.

 

Innovating with local knowledge July 22nd, 2018 by

Local knowledge is dynamic and farmers are fast to adapt traditional practices when the need arises, as we saw during a recent filming visit.

The fall armyworm arrived in Africa only in 2016 and is creating panic among farmers and governments alike. International development organisations are quick to ring the bell and up the competition to bid for public funds to respond to evident emergencies.

But farmers can’t always wait for solutions to be developed by researchers or for government support. In an earlier blog, “Armies against armies,” I wrote about John Fundi from Embu County, Kenya, who combined various observations on how ants behave to develop his own solution. Ants like fat and caterpillars, so if you smear fat on the maize stalks you can attract the ants to move up on the plants and eat the caterpillars.

Aaron Njagi shared another interesting innovation based on keen observations. As an herbalist, Aaron knows a lot about which plants can be used to cure people and which ones can be used to kill or repel insect pests. The herbal pesticide that he uses to kill caterpillars in his vegetable crops proved inadequate to control the fall armyworm, so Aaron immediately figured that this pest was not like any other. His herbal mix needed extra strength.

“Just one drop of aloe vera in water is enough to cure people from respiratory problems, so I decided to add the strength of this plant to the mix of plants I use to control the other caterpillars,” he says. On top, he adds chopped chilli for extra bitterness and strength, and then boils the lot. Once the water has cooled down a little, Aaron removes the plants from the water and adds a little snuff tobacco.

“After fermenting the mix for a week in the shade, I can now use it,” he continues, “but you need to dilute it as it is very powerful. I also decided to add a little washing powder before spraying it, so it sticks better to the maize plants.”

Farmers know when something works, and when something doesn’t work. Everywhere we went, we heard that pesticides did not kill the fall armyworm. But Aaron’s mixture works. That he is already asked by his neighbours to spray their fields with his herbal medicine further testifies how fast farmers can innovate.

Related blogs

Armies against armies

Agro-Insight has written many blog stories on Local innovation and Pest management

Related videos

The videos on fall armyworm will be posted on www.accessagriculture.org in the coming month.

Acknowledgement

The videos on fall armyworm are developed in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) with funding from the McKnight Foundation’s Collaborative Crop Research Program (CCRP).

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