Ice was once a natural resource of some value, harvested, processed and sold on international markets. The ice harvest has vanished, but not before evolving into our modern food chain.
In 1805, the 21-year-old Frederic Tudor was at a party in Boston, when his brother William playfully suggested that ice from nearby ponds could be cut and sold to wealthy customers in the Caribbean. Frederic, later to be known as the â€śIce Kingâ€ť, seized on the idea, and the following year took a ship loaded with ice to sunny Martinique, where he taught the owners of the finer hotels how to make and sell ice cream.
The ice cream sold for a hefty price, but the ice itself soon melted, leaving Frederic with a staggering loss of $4000. Not one to be easily discouraged, he learned from his expensive lesson by experimenting with different ways to make the ice last longer. He compared types of insulation, including straw, wood shavings, and blankets, and designs for storage facilities until he had perfected an ice depot that could keep 92% of its inventory frozen for a summer season. Once he had succeeded, Fredericâ€™s business and reputation soared.
For years, ice harvesters improvised techniques with pickaxes and chisels, aided by horses wearing spiked shoes, to avoid slipping on the frozen lakes. This was usually good enough to gather enough ice to be stored for sale in the summer in northern cities. Then in 1824, another Massachusetts man, Nathaniel Jarvis, invented a horse-drawn ice cutter, with parallel blades that would cut ice from frozen ponds into blocks of standard sizes, such as 22 by 22 inches (56 centimeters). This innovation allowed blocks of ice that could be loaded tightly onto a ship, without spaces in between. The ice was less likely to melt or shift in transit, and the ice trade took on a new life.
Ice began to be shipped to Charleston, New Orleans and other southern cities (especially to chill beer and preserve fish during the long, hot summers), but in one bold experiment in 1833, Tudor shipped 180 tons of ice to Calcutta, where he built a large ice depot to house his product. Residents of India could now buy an insulated box, and stock it with a block of Yankee ice that would keep food and drinks cold for days.
By 1856 over 130,000 tons of ice were being cut from ponds around Boston and shipped not just to India, but also to Latin America, the Caribbean, China and the Philippines.Â But that same year, spurred by the profits to be made from ice, a British journalist, James Harrison, invented a practical, coal-powered ice compressor in Australia. â€śNatural iceâ€ť (cut in the wild) and â€śplant iceâ€ť (from factories) competed with each other in an expanding market. In the 1800s, some railroad cars and ships were fitted with ice-holding compartments that allowed fresh meat and other perishable produce to be shipped long distances.
At first, consumers preferred natural ice, believing it was cleaner and longer lasting, and it wasnâ€™t until 1914 that plant ice in the USA gained dominance. Relatively inexpensive electrical refrigerators came onto the market in 1923. Once consumers had refrigerators, they no longer had to buy ice.
After a century of lively commerce, the spectacular long-distance and large-scale trade of natural ice finally began to decline and eventually collapsed in the 1930s. However, the ice trade has left the modern economy with a legacy: the commerce in fresh food which continues to this day, although it is now based on refrigeration, not natural ice. And of course there is still a niche market for factory-made ice, sold for picnics, and (especially in developing countries) to fishmongers and other small-scale food dealers.
The ice trade also led to another innovation, the ice box, which allowed homeowners to keep food fresh, stimulating the trade in produce from countryside to town. Modern supermarkets with ice cream, frozen fish and fresh meat presuppose that the consumers have a refrigerator at home. Today, tropical countries like Ghana export mangos and papayas to Europe and North America. Because of refrigeration in Central America, more farmers are able to sell fresh produce to large, new supermarkets in cities like Tegucigalpa and San Salvador.
You can now find tropical produce in refrigerators around the world, and in a sense it started when a student at Harvard joked with his brother about shipping frozen pond water to the Caribbean.
Boorstin, Daniel J. 1965 The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Vintage Books. 517 pp.
Cummings, Richard O. 1949 The American Ice Harvests: A Historical Study in Technology, 1800â€“1918. Berkeley and Los Angeles: California University Press.
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn
Even seemingly simple tasks, like raising the humble earthworm, can be done in more ways than one, however all variations must follow certain basic principles.
In a video from Bangladesh, villagers show the audience how to raise earthworms in cement rings, sunk into the soil. The floor is covered with a sheet of plastic to keep the worms from escaping. The worms are fed on chunks of banana corm and the ring is covered to keep out the rain, but still retain some moisture.
My grandfather used to raise worms in a pressed-board box on his back porch. He fed them on strips of newspaper and used coffee grounds. So I knew that there was more than one way to raise worms, but I didnâ€™t quite realize how many options there were, until I saw two small, family firms in Cochabamba, Bolivia this week at an agricultural fair. Both firms raise earthworms and sell the worms, the humus they make, and the excess moisture collected in the process (to use as fertilizerâ€”applied on leaves or the soil).
One company, Biodel, experimented with various types of containers. The worms died in plastic ones, but they thrived inside of aluminum cylinders, wrapped in foam (to keep them cool) inside of a metal barrel. A screened base with a tray collects the humus, while worm food (especially composted cow manure) is loaded into the top of the barrel.
A second company, Lombriflor, had a different devise. They use stacks of plastic-covered wooden trays on a slight slant, and they feed the earthworms corn plant residues, semi-composed cow manure, and kitchen scraps. Earthworms have their favorite foods. â€śEarthworms like all of the cucurbits (like squash), but nothing sour,â€ť explained Silvio GutiĂ©rrez and his wife, the company owners. â€śThey donâ€™t like citrus at all.â€ť Earthworms will eat paper, but they prefer egg cartons.
So here we have a Bangladeshi cement ring, a Bolivian barrel and a set of wooden trays. It seems like a lot of different ways to raise worms, which is an important topic, because the night-crawlers, as my grandfather used to call them, help to enrich the compost, stabilize it and they improve the soil with the beneficial micro-organisms they release.
All of these worm brooders share certain core principles. The worms are kept cool, not allowed to escape, and are fed on organic matter (depending on what is abundant locally) and the earthworms are not allowed to get too dry or too moist.
The Bangladeshi earthworm video has been translated into Spanish and will soon be released in Bolivia. We hope it will inspire smallholder farmers to invent additional devices for raising the under-rated earthworm.
The Access Agriculture video-sharing platform will soon also host yet another video about rearing worms, featuring rural entrepreneurs in India who use woven polythene bags as containers.
Watch the video
ÂżQUĂ‰ QUIEREN LAS LOMBRICES DE TIERRA?
Por Jeff Bentley, 16 de abril del 2017
Hasta tareas aparentemente sencillas como criar a la humilde lombriz de tierra, pueden hacerse en mĂˇs de una forma, aunque todas las variantes deben seguir ciertos principios bĂˇsicos.
En un video de Bangladesh, los aldeanos muestran a la audiencia cĂłmo criar las lombrices de tierra en argollas de cemento, semi-enterrados en el suelo. El piso se cubre con una hoja de plĂˇstico, para que las lombrices no escapen. Las lombrices comen pedacitos de tallos de plĂˇtano y la argolla se cubre, para que las lombrices no se ahoguen con la lluvia, pero que no se resequen tampoco.
Mi abuelo solĂa criar lombrices en una caja de tablas de aserrĂn prensado en el corredor de su casa. Les alimentaba con tiras de periĂłdico y borras de cafĂ©. AsĂ que yo ya sabĂa de mĂˇs de una manera de criar lombrices, pero no me di cuenta de cuĂˇntas opciones habĂa, hasta ver dos pequeĂ±as empresas familiares en Cochabamba, Bolivia esta semana en una feria agrĂcola. Ambas empresas crĂan lombrices y las venden junto con el humus que hacen y el lĂquido que se recolecta en el proceso (para usar como fertilizanteâ€”aplicado a las hojas o al suelo).
Una empresa, Biodel, experimentĂł con varias clases de contenedores. Las lombrices se morĂan en los de plĂˇstico, pero prosperaban en los cilindros de aluminio, forrados en espuma (para mantener la frescura) dentro de un barril metĂˇlico. Una base de malla con una charola recolecta el humus, mientras la comida de lombrices (especialmente estiĂ©rcol de vaca compostada) se pone a la parte superior del barril.
Una segunda compaĂ±Ăa, Lombriflor, tiene otro dispositivo. Ellos usan bandejas de madera, una encima de la otra, livianamente inclinadas y cubiertas de plĂˇstico, y alimentan a las lombrices con residuos de plantas de maĂz, estiĂ©rcol de vaca semi-compostada, y restos de cocina. Las lombrices tienen sus comidas favoritas. â€śA las lombrices les gustan todas las cucĂşrbitas (como el zapallo), pero nada Ăˇcido,â€ť explicĂł Silvio GutiĂ©rrez y su esposa, los dueĂ±os de la empresa. â€śNo les gustan los cĂtricos para nada.â€ť Las lombrices comerĂˇn papel, pero prefieren maples de huevo.
AsĂ que tenemos una argolla de cemento bangladesĂ, un barril boliviano y un juego de bandejas de madera. Parecen muchas maneras para criar lombrices, lo cual es un tema importante, porque las lombrices ayudan a enriquecer el compost, estabilizarlo y mejoran el suelo con los micro-organismos benĂ©ficos que liberan.
Todos estos criaderos de lombrices comparten ciertos principios de fondo. Las lombrices se mantienen frescas, no pueden escapar, y se les alimenta con materia orgĂˇnica (lo que estĂ© localmente abundante) y a las lombrices no se les deja mojarse mucho ni secarse demasiado.
El video de Bangladesh sobre la lombriz de tierra se ha traducido al espaĂ±ol y pronto serĂˇ distribuido en Bolivia. Esperamos que ello inspire a muchos campesinos a inventar otras herramientas adicionales para criar a la subestimada lombriz.
La plataforma para compartir videos, Access Agriculture, pronto albergarĂˇ otro video sobre la crianza de lombrices de tierra, presentando a empresarios rurales en la India quienes usan gangochos (sacos de yute plĂˇstico) como sus contenedores.
Ver el video
Innovation in agriculture is the key to progress, yet new ideas need to be carefully examined. This is particularly true for â€śif onlyâ€ť crops, where wondrous benefits could be realised, so we are told, if only more were produced for eager markets. It rarely turns out to be so simple.
From the 1960s onwards the neem tree received a lot of attention from pest scientists who promoted the pesticide properties of naturally occurring compounds. Neemâ€™s properties had been known across India for centuries, but were a source of wonderment to Western scientists, intrigued by the possibilities of natural alternatives to the highly toxic pesticides damned in Rachel Carsonâ€™s Silent Spring.
â€śIf onlyâ€ť crops often promise increased incomes for farmers, with other benefits such as reduced pest management costs and health risks in the case of neem. Neem was promoted widely in West Africa as part of IPM (integrated pest management), though the most notable success I am aware of was an agroforestry scheme in Niger, where neem was used as windbreaks for annual crops. Neem was also promoted widely as a botanical insecticide in Central America in the 1990s, but the most lasting result of plantings seems to be attractiveÂ trees in public parks.
I did hear of a commercial scheme to harvest neem oil from neem plantations in Indonesia, driven by a reported US market price of US$50 per litre. But, like many other wonder crops, the hype didnâ€™t match the reality. Neem products are sold widely in India, often with heavy government subsidies, but wider, international trade has yet to happen.
Promoting any new plant-based product for profit requires a complex series of coordinated steps, from getting farmers to grow enough plants to guarantee a steady supply of raw material, to having processing facilities that can produce the quality product needed by traders that are ready and willing to pay a fair price.
Add to this: trading regulations, alternative suppliers and fluctuating demand, and the barriers to success become daunting. The promotion of neem products has been a qualified success where farmers were already familiar with the plant. Creating enterprises based on a first-time crop is much more challenging, as I learnt last week in Rwanda. Patchouli is a small herbaceous plant whose leaves produce a pungent oil used in perfumery. Patchouli oil is also used in making incense and anyone who has visited India or passed byÂ Hindu temples elsewhere is likely to have smelled its particularly intense and persistent aroma.
About 10 years ago an entrepreneur from Haiti, Pierre LĂ©ger, visited Rwanda and convinced the government to support a scheme to plant patchouli, a previously unknown crop. This was the wonder plant, according to the spiel, that would transform the lives of many poor farmers in Rwanda. Patchouli is well-suited to conditions in Rwanda, where aid agencies and the government were keen to support new enterprises, particularly those that promised high financial rewards. Add to this a global patchouli oil shortage and skyrocketing price at the time, and itâ€™s easy to understand why a proposal to establish a patchouli industry in Rwanda received a sympathetic welcome. Rwanda already grew geraniums for essential oils, so this type of business was already familiar to some farmers.
Today, however, patchouli still languishes as an â€śif onlyâ€ť crop for Rwanda: if only more farmers had planted it; if only distilling facilities had been successfully established; if only investment from the government had been realised; and if only the original promoter had stayed the course necessary to establish a patchouli oil business. There are wonder crops that have succeeded, but usually because they were already grown by farmers and there was a semblance of a local industry that could be expanded when market conditions became favourable. It also helps to have committed private investors.
Quinoa is not an overnight success for Bolivia or Peru. Many people have worked for years to promote its nutritional benefits, efforts that are now being rewarded by sustained exports to North America and Europe. The quinoa was also supported for years at the exporting end in the Andes by researchers and entrepreneurs in Bolivia.
The overall picture of wonder crops is, however, of patchy success. Leucaena, a woody legume, was widely promoted by projects as a reliable solution to fodder shortages, yet it was plagued by a psyllid (a sucking insect) that followed the expansion of planting aroundthe world. Goji berries, a super-food grown mainly in north-west China, is a wonder crop that continues to do well. But success also encourages competitors, with increased quinoa and goji production in the US, for example.
The main lesson from the fates of many crops promoted as â€śthe next big thingâ€ť for development is to exercise caution. It is tricky linking production to markets and finding reliable investors who will keep working on processing and marketing after donor dollars have disappeared. A committed community of researchers, processors, exporters, producers and policy-makers is essential. There is undoubtedly a place for wonder crops in creating new enterprises, but only if the assumptions and claims of the promoters are thoroughly scrutinised before taking the plunge.
Related blog stories
The quinoa boom in Bolivia has been years in the making: Quinoa, lost and found
Persistence helped to establish cardamom in Guatemala, as explained in A troubled crop.
A wonder crop can also be an insect, as we read in Kiss of death in the cactus garden
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn.
Scientific knowledge is universal, but experienced agricultural scientists also bring their own, personal experience to bear on local problems.
Every year our guava tree loses all its fruit to fruit flies. A few weeks ago in Cochabamba my wife, Ana, sent me down to the agro-supply shop to get a special device, a pheromone trap, which lures fruit flies to their death using the scent of a sexual attractant. Insects use chemicals called pheromones to communicate with members of their own species. Some pheromones are emitted by a female fly that is ready to mate, but there are also alarm pheromones and aggregation pheromones (which you have seen in play, if you have ever noticed a large cluster of ladybird beetles clinging to a branch).
Ana was inspired to use the pheromone trap after having watched some training videos from Africa on the Access Agriculture website.
At the shop, the vendor said that â€śyou get those traps at Proinpa.â€ť I was a little surprised that she even knew of pheromone traps, but even more so that she knew of Proinpa: not everyone is aware of nearby agricultural research institutes.
At Proinpa, Luis Crespo, an entomologist, asked us why we wanted a pheromone trap. When Ana said for guava, Luis gave us a sad, knowing smile, as if to say â€ślost cause.â€ť
â€śBut the trap also works for fruit flies attacking peaches?â€ť Ana added.
Luis said yes, but fruit flies prefer guava so much that he advises peach growers to cut down any guava trees, or the peaches will be ruined by flies emerging from the guavas.
Luis took us to his lab, where he piqued our interest in the food bait trap, as an alternative to the pheromone trap. He took a plastic soda-pop bottle and cut three small doors in it, to let in the fruit flies. â€śFill the bottom of the bottle with a sweet liquid. The best one is fermented chicha.â€ť Luis smiled at the thought that fruit flies liked the traditional maize beer. The flies are attracted to the liquid bait in the bottom of the bottle and drown.
The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is native to Europe, but it is now widespread in South America. There are also fruit flies that are native to the Americas (Anastrepha spp.).
Unlike the pheromone trap, the food bait trap would catch both species of fruit fly, males and females, as well as houseflies, â€śand even wasps and bees,â€ť Luis added with a touch of sadness. Entomologists like wasps, because they kill insect pests.
On the other hand, Luis explained, when the food bait trap is full of dead insects, donâ€™t pour it on the ground or the sugary liquid will attract fruit flies, and you will feed them instead of killing them.
Luis went on to explain that when wormy fruit falls to the ground, the fruit fly larvae pupate in the soil. So you have to gather up the fallen fruits immediately.
Even though Luis prefers food bait traps, which can be made entirely from local materials, he was kind enough to sell us a wax plug of imported pheromone bait as well. Luis took a wire and a pair of pliers and with a practiced hand, poked the wire through the bait and fashioned the wire into a little hook, so we could hang it inside the pheromone trap. Then he gave us the little triangular (delta) trap; the male, Mediterranean fruit flies will fly to the little plug of sex bait, but will be captured and die on the sticky floor of the trap.
Ana and I left pleased. We had three ideas: two kinds of traps and a renewed determination to clean up the fallen fruit. And if that didnâ€™t work, we could always cut down our guava tree and plant an avocado tree in its place.
I remembered from earlier visits that Luis knew everything there was to know about potato pests, like weevils and moths. I was delighted to see that he was also an expert on fruit flies. Local knowledge and scientific knowledge are often seen as opposites, but at their best they are complimentary. A good agricultural scientist combines textbook knowledge with local experience to unravel the ties between peach trees and guava, the various species of flies, and the advantages of different traps for fruit flies.
Watch the videos
EL MEJOR CONOCIMIENTO ES LOCAL Y CIENTĂŤFICO
por Jeff Bentley, 2 de abril del 2017
El conocimiento cientĂfico es universal, pero los experimentados cientĂficos agrĂcolas tambiĂ©n usan su propia experiencia para solucionar los problemas locales.
Cada aĂ±o nuestro guayabero pierde toda su fruta a las moscas de la fruta. Hace unas semanas en Cochabamba mi esposa Ana me mandĂł a la tienda agropecuaria para comprar un aparato especial, una trampa de feromonas que llama a las moscas de fruta a su muerte, usando un atrayente sexual. Los insectos usan quĂmicos llamados feromonas para comunicarse con miembros de su propia especie. Algunas feromonas son emitidas por una mosca hembra que estĂˇ lista para la cĂłpula, pero hay tambiĂ©n feromonas de alarma y de agregaciĂłn (las cuales usted tal vez ha visto en acciĂłn, si alguna vez se ha fijado en un gran grupo de mariquitas aferrĂˇndose a una rama).
Ana se inspirĂł a usar la trampa de feromonas despuĂ©s de ver algunos videos didĂˇcticos de Africa en el sitio web de Access Agriculture.
En la tienda, la vendedora dijo â€śse consiguen esas trampas en Proinpa.â€ť Me sorprendiĂł que ella supiera de las trampas de feromona, y mĂˇs todavĂa que ella conocĂa a Proinpa: no todos se dan cuenta de los institutos de investigaciĂłn agrĂcola en su zona.
En Proinpa, el Ing. Luis Crespo, entomĂłlogo, nos preguntĂł por quĂ© querĂamos una trampa de feromona. Cuando Ana dijo para el guayabero, Luis nos dio una sonrisa triste, como decir â€ścausa perdida.â€ť
â€śÂżPero la trampa tambiĂ©n funciona para moscas de la fruta que atacan a los durazneros?â€ť Ana agregĂł.
Luis dijo que sĂ, pero que las moscas de la fruta prefieren tanto a la guayaba que Ă©l asesora a los productores de durazno a quitar todos sus guayaberos, caso contrario los duraznos serĂˇn arruinados por las moscas que emergen de las guayabas.
Luis nos llevĂł a su laboratorio, donde nos interesĂł en la trampa con atrayente alimenticio, como alternativa a la trampa de feromona. TomĂł un envase plĂˇstico de refresco y cortĂł tres pequeĂ±as puertas, para dejar entrar las moscas de la fruta. â€śHay que llenar el fondo con cualquier lĂquido dulce. Lo mejor es la chicha fermentada.â€ť Luis sonriĂł al pensar que a las moscas de la fruta les gusta la tradicional cerveza de maĂz. Las moscas se atraen al anzuelo lĂquido al fondo de la botella y allĂ se ahogan.
La mosca mediterrĂˇnea (Ceratitis capitata) es nativa a Europa, pero hoy en dĂa estĂˇ difundida por SudamĂ©rica. Hay tambiĂ©n moscas de la fruta nativas a las AmĂ©ricas (Anastrepha spp.).
A diferencia de la trampa de feromonas, la trampa alimenticia atraparĂa a ambas especies de mosca de la fruta, tanto machos como hembras, y moscas domĂ©sticas, â€śy hasta avispas y abejas,â€ť Luis agregĂł con un toque de tristeza. A los entomĂłlogos les gustan las avispas porque matan a las plagas insectiles.
Por otro lado, explicĂł Luis, cuando la trampa alimenticia estĂˇ llena de insectos muertos, no botes el contenido al suelo porque el lĂquido dulce atraerĂˇ a las moscas de la fruta, y las alimentarĂˇs en vez de matarlas.
Luis siguiĂł explicando que cuando la fruta agusanada cae, las moscas de la fruta se empupan en el suelo. Hay que eliminar toda la fruta caĂda inmediatamente.
A pesar de que Luis prefiere las trampas alimenticias, que se pueden hacer de materiales locales, amablemente nos vendiĂł un tapĂłn de cera, con feromonas. Luis tomĂł un alambre y alicate y con una mano experta, pasĂł el alambre a travĂ©s del tapĂłn y formĂł el alambre como ganchito, para que lo pudiĂ©ramos colgar dentro de la trampa de feromona. Luego nos dio una trampita triangular (trampa delta); los machos de la mosca mediterrĂˇnea irĂˇn volando al corcho impregnado de olor a sexo, pero serĂˇn capturados y morirĂˇn en el piso pegajoso de la trampa.
Ana y yo nos fuimos contentos. TenĂamos tres ideas: dos clases de trampas y una determinaciĂłn renovada de limpiar la fruta caĂda. Y si eso no funcionaba, siempre podrĂamos despachar nuestra guayabera y plantar un palto (aguacate) en su lugar.
Me acordĂ© de mis anteriores visitas que Luis lo sabĂa todo de las plagas de la papa, como gorgojos y polillas. Me encantĂł ver que tambiĂ©n era experto en las moscas de la futa. El conocimiento local y el cientĂfico a menudo se ven como opuestos, pero en el mejor de los casos se complementan. Un buen cientĂfico agrĂcola combina el conocimiento de los textos con la experiencia local para entender la relaciĂłn entre los durazneros y los guayaberos, las diferentes especies de moscas, y las ventajas de las diferentes trampas para las moscas de la fruta.
Vea los videos
Vea la versiĂłn en espaĂ±ol a continuaciĂłn
The Quechua language (or group of closely related languages, depending on your perspective), is a Native American tongue with some eight to ten million speakers in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. Quechua was actually encouraged in the colonial era: grammars, dictionaries and catechisms were written in the language, chairs for teaching the language were founded in Andean universities. But Quechua was scorned during the republican era, following independence from Spain (1809-1825). In recent years, the language has been recovering ground in a sense. It is starting to be used in schools and in political speech.
Wikipedia lists over 20,000 articles in Quechua. Popular on-line videos in Quechua include language lessons, the Jesus Film, films produced by students, and a rousing version of â€śHakuna Matataâ€ť. The talented Renata Flores plays â€śHouse of the Rising Sunâ€ť on the piano and sings it in Quechua, with heart and soul.
But there are few agricultural videos in Quechua. This is rather surprising, since the people who speak Quechua are fundamentally farmers. So we have remedied this, a bit.
Along with colleagues in Bolivia and at Agro-Insight, we have produced seven farmer training videos in Quechua. The same videos are also available in Aymara, the language native to the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia.
Only two of the videos were originally made in Bolivia: one on managing the poisonous aflatoxins in peanuts (groundnuts) and one on tarwi (the lupine bean). Other videos were originally shot in other countries (shown in brackets):
Integrated Soil Fertility Management (various African countries)
Letâ€™s Talk Money: Â simple cost:benefit accounting for new farm technology (Mali)
The Wonder of Earthworms (Bangladesh)
Grass Strips against Soil Erosion (Vietnam and Thailand)
Till Less to Harvest More (Guatemala)
You may wonder why we translated existing videos instead of making new ones. Cost is one reason. It is much cheaper and easier to translate a video than to make one. Besides, many of the Quechua videos already on the web are basically translations of other work.Â If that works for entertainment, it should be OK for farming.
Farmers understand learning videos other continents, provided the voice over is in a language that the audience speaks. Videos are a way of sharing knowledge from farmer-to-farmer cross culturally.
We hope that speakers of Quechua and Aymara will enjoy seeing smallholders, like themselves, farming and solving problems in Asia, Africa and Central America.
The videos are hosted in the public domain at the Access Agriculture portal, which has many videos in African and Asian languages. These are the siteâ€™s first videos in Native American languages.
Videos in Quechua
To watch the videos in Quechua, visit Access Agriculture here.
Videos in Aymara
You can also watch videos in Aymara here.
The translations were funded by the McKnight Foundation
VIDEOS QUE HABLAN A LOS AGRICULTORES ANDINOS
Por Jeff Bentley, 26 de marzo del 2017
El quechua es un idioma (o grupo de idiomas muy cercanos, segĂşn su perspectiva), nativo a las AmĂ©ricas, con unos ocho a diez millones de hablantes en Bolivia, PerĂş y Ecuador. Los gobiernos coloniales efectivamente fomentaron el uso del quechua: gramĂˇticas, diccionarios y catequismos se escribieron en el idioma y se fundaron cĂˇtedras para enseĂ±ar el idioma en las universidades andinas. Pero el quechua fue desprestigiado en la era republicana, despuĂ©s de la independencia de EspaĂ±a (1809-1825). En aĂ±os recientes, el idioma se ha cobrado fuerzas. Empieza a usarse en los colegios y en discursos polĂticos.
Wikipedia dice que tiene mĂˇs de 20,000 artĂculos en quechua. Videos populares en lĂnea incluyen lecciones para aprender el idioma, pelĂculas producidas por estudiantes, JesĂşs (la pelĂcula) y una versiĂłn emocionante de â€śHakuna Matataâ€ť. La talentosa Renata Flores toca â€śHouse of the Rising Sunâ€ť en el piano y lo canta en quechua, con alma y corazĂłn.
Pero hay pocos videos agrĂcolas en quechua, lo cual es sorprendente, ya que las personas que habla el idioma son fundamentalmente agricultores. Entonces hemos hecho algo para cambiar la situaciĂłn.
Junto con colegas en Bolivia y en Agro-Insight, hemos producido siete videos didĂˇcticos en quechua. Los mismos videos tambiĂ©n estĂˇn disponibles en aymara, el idioma nativo a la regiĂłn del Lago Titicaca del PerĂş y Bolivia.
Solo dos de los videos se rodaron originalmente en Bolivia: uno sobre el manejo de las venenosas aflatoxinas en manĂ, y uno sobre el tarwi (chocho, o lupino). Otros videos se filmaron originalmente en otros paĂses (indicados entre parĂ©ntesis):
Manejo Integrado de la Fertilidad del Suelo (varios paĂses africanos)
Hablemos del Dinero: contabilidad sencillo para costo:beneficio de nueva tecnologĂa agrĂcola (MalĂ)
La Maravillosa Lombriz de Tierra (Bangladesh)
Barreras Vivas contra la ErosiĂłn del Suelo (Vietnam y Tailandia)
Arar Menos para Cosechar MĂˇs (Guatemala)
Tal vez se pregunta porque tradujimos videos existentes en vez de hacer nuevos videos. El costo es una razĂłn. Es mucho mĂˇs barato y fĂˇcil traducir un video que hacer uno. AdemĂˇs, muchos de los videos en quechua que ya estĂˇn en la Web son bĂˇsicamente traducciones de otras obras. Si eso vale para el entretenimiento, tambiĂ©n funciona para el agro.
Los agricultores entienden a los videos didĂˇcticos de otros paĂses, con tal que la narraciĂłn sea en un idioma que el pĂşblico hable. Los videos son una manera de compartir el conocimiento de campesino-a-campesino de forma intercultural.
Esperamos que los hablantes del quechua y del aymara disfruten de ver a campesinos, como ellos mismos, trabajando y resolviendo problemas en Asia, Africa y CentroamĂ©rica.
Los videos estĂˇn alojados en el dominio pĂşblico en el portal de Access Agriculture, que tiene muchos videos en idiomas africanos y asiĂˇticos. Pero los presentes son los primeros videos en el sitio en idiomas nativas a las AmĂ©ricas.
Videos en quechua
Para mirar los videos en quechua, visite a Access Agriculture aquĂ.
Videos in Aymara
Se puede mirar los videos en aymara aquĂ.
Las traducciones se fundaron por la McKnight Foundation